ContentsIntroductionChangesQuick GuideChapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8Index

Alphabetical Index


edn for edition §7.3(a)

for scientific units and other measures §5.5

non-italicization of §3.7(b)

shortened book titles §2.9

use of full stop §2.10

when to use §2.9

academic degrees §2.10


in loan words §2.2

on capital letters §3.6

access dates for websites §6.3

AD and CE §1.2(c), §5.1

ALA-LC §1.2(f)


citing §7.8

alphabetical order §8.2

American states §2.10

American vs British spelling §2.1

angle brackets, see punctuation marks

apostrophe, see punctuation marks

arabic script §1.2(f)

Arabic, transliteration of §1.2(f)

art, works of:

citing §1.3(b), §7.9

articles (a, an, the):

casing in titles §3.4

usage in alphabetical order §8.2

usage in country names §4.1(b)

usage in names of publishers §7.3(a)

articles (in journals):

citing §7.4

author–date citation §7.1, §7.1, §7.13

BC and BCE §1.2(c), §5.1, §5.2


capitalization §3.1

citing from §7.3(d)

non-italicization of §3.8(a)


accompanying author–date citation §8.4

accompanying citation in notes §8.3

name inversion in §8.1


citing §7.3(a)

brackets and braces, see punctuation marks

British Isles §4.1(d)

British vs American spelling §2.1

capital letters §1.2(c), see small capitals

capital letters, accents on §3.6


early modern §3.4

of descriptions of regions §3.1

of names of cultural or ethnic groups §3.1

of names of events and organizations §3.1

of names of movements and periods §3.3

of names of newspapers §3.4

of names of political factions §3.3

of personal titles and positions §3.2

of roman numerals §5.3

of subtitles §3.4

of titles of works §3.4

title casing §3.4

captions for figures §1.3(b)

Celtic personal names §4.3(d)

centuries §5.1, §5.3

changes of personal name §8.1

chapters in books:

citing §7.3(b)

circa and c. §5.1


abbreviated §7.12

author–date system of §7.13

from the Bible §7.3(d)

in notes vs author–date §7.1

of chapters in edited books §7.3(b)

of cover versions of songs §7.8

of dictionary entries §7.5

of entire books §7.3(a)

of exhibition catalogues §7.9

of films §7.8

of individual poems §7.3(b)

of interviews §7.11

of journal articles §7.4

of letters §7.11

of manuscripts §7.7

of newspaper articles §7.6

of plays and longer poems §7.3(c)

of recorded music §7.8

of software §7.8

of television programmes §7.8

of unpublished theses §7.10

of web pages and social media posts §7.5

of works of art §7.9

place and date of publication §7.3(a)

software for generating §1.2(h)

classical names §4.3(a)

colons, see punctuation marks

commas, see punctuation marks

composers §7.8

compound nouns:

hyphenation of §3.5

conference papers:

citing §7.10


acknowledging in figure captions §1.3(b)

of letters and interviews §7.11

poems and song lyrics §2.14


citing §7.11

cover versions of songs:

citing §7.8


in indexes §8.7

in main text §1.2(h)

where an author or artist has more than one name §8.2

currency §5.4

Cyrillic script §1.2(f)

Cyrillic, transliteration of §1.2(f)

dashes, see punctuation marks

dates §5.1

access dates for websites §6.3

definite article:

discounted in alphabetical lists §8.2

for country names §4.1(b)

omitted from names of journals §7.4

omitted from names of newspapers §7.6

omitted from names of publishers §7.3(a)

degrees, academic §2.10

deutschmark §5.4

diacritics, see accents

dictionary entries:

citing §7.5


citing §7.10


availability of §6.1

format to follow §6.2

in citations of books §7.3(a)

in citations of journal articles §7.4

Dutch and Flemish personal names §4.3(d)


citing §7.5

lack of page numbering in §7.3(a)

Egyptian hieroglyphs §1.2(f)

em-rule, see punctuation marks

emojis §7.5

en-rule, see punctuation marks


numbers §2.16(a)

punctuation in §2.16(b)

England §4.1(d)

et al., deprecation of §7.3(a), §8.3

European currencies §5.4

exclamation mark, see punctuation marks

exhibition catalogues:

citing §7.9

Facebook §7.5

facsimile reprints §7.2, §7.3(a)

figures §1.3(a)

film stills, captions for §1.3(b)


citing §7.8

fol. and fols §7.3(a), §7.7

font to use for text §1.2(b)


numbers §2.16(a)

punctuation in §2.16(b)

franc §5.4

French personal names §4.3(d)

general editor §7.3(a)

graphemes §1.2(g)

Great Britain §4.1(d)

Greek script §1.2(f)

guidelines for authors §1.1

Han (Chinese, Japanese, or Korean) script §1.2(f)

hard sign ъ §1.2(f)

Harvard-style citation, see author–date citation

hashtags §7.5

headings and subheadings §1.2(d)

Hebrew script §1.2(f)


of adjectives and adverbs §2.6

of compound nouns §3.5

of place names §4.1(c)

hyphens, see punctuation marks

ibid. §2.16(b)

illustrations, see figures

image files §1.3(a)

in-text references, see author–date citation


cross-references §8.7

name inversion in §8.1

organization §8.6

sub-entries §8.6

what to index §8.5

initials §4.3(e)

International Phonetic Alphabet §1.2(g)

Internet Movie Database §6.3


citing §7.11

copyright on §7.11

inverting names §8.1


of abbreviated journal names §2.10

of foreign terms §3.7(b)

of loan words §2.2

of punctuation §2.11

of titles of films and works of art §3.8(b)

of titles of works §3.8(a)

of words or terms under discussion §3.7(a)

-ize vs -ise §2.1


abbreviated names of §2.10

availability of DOIs in §6.1

capitalization in names of §3.4

citing articles from §7.4

reprints from §7.2

special issues of §7.4

justification of text §1.2(a)

krone §5.4

l. and ll. §2.9, §2.16(b)

letter alphabetization §8.2


citing §7.11

copyright on §7.11

loan words:

accents in §2.2

italicization of §3.7(b)

plural spellings of §2.4

manuscripts §7.7

Microsoft Word §1.1, §1.2(a), §1.2(h)


Celtic personal names §4.3(d)

Dutch and Flemish personal names §4.3(d)

French personal names §4.3(d)

historical place names §4.1(a)

inversion of §8.1

of academic institutions §4.2

of artists §1.3(b)

of authors and editors in citations §7.3(a)

of cities and countries §4.1(b)

of classical authors §4.3(a)

of kings and queens §4.3(c), §8.1

of movements §3.3, §3.5

of popes and saints §4.3(b)

of publishers §7.3(a)

patronymics in §8.1

Russian personal names §4.3(d)

use or omission of middle names §8.1


accessed online §6.3

capitalization of names §3.4

citing §7.6

note numbers §2.16(a)

number ranges §2.7, §5.2


of centuries §5.3

of figures §1.3(a)

of footnotes and endnotes §2.16(a)

of tables §1.4

roman numerals §5.3

Old Style dates §5.1

online resources, see DOIs, see URLs

open-access material and repositories §7.10

p. and pp. §2.9, §2.16(b), §7.3(a)

page layout §1.2(a)

page numbering §1.2(a)

parentheses, see punctuation marks

patronymics §8.1

permalink §6.3

peseta §5.4

PhD vs Ph.D. §2.10

phonemic notation §1.2(g)

phonetic notation §1.2(g)


citing §7.9

photographs, captions for §1.3(b)

place names:

historical §4.1(a)

hyphenation of §4.1(c)


citing §7.3(c)

quotations from §2.15

plurals §2.4


citing §7.3(c)

possessives §2.3, §4.4

pseudonyms, in indexes and bibliographies §8.1

publication date and place §7.3(a)

publishing houses, formatting names of §7.3(a)


brackets inside brackets §2.8

of notes §2.16(b)

quotations inside quotations §2.13, §7.3(b)

when to italicize §2.11

within quotations §2.12(c)

punctuation marks:

2-em rule, in bibliographies §2.7, §8.3

angle brackets, to delimit URLs §6.3

apostrophe, marking possessives §2.3

brackets, for parenthetical statements §2.8


to divide title and subtitle §7.3(b)

used in DOIs §6.2


omission where unnecessary §2.5(d)

to apply a relative clause to a category §2.5(b)

to delimit phrases §2.5(a)

to divide lists §2.5(c)

dollar sign, for currency §5.4

double quotation marks, for quotations within quotations §2.13

em rule:

doubled as ditto mark §2.7, §8.3


as parenthesis §2.7

to introduce dialogue §2.12(c)


for numerical spans §2.7

use in compound words §2.7

euro sign, for currency §5.4

exclamation mark, in quotations §2.13

full stop:

at end of long quotation §2.14

for initials in personal names §4.3(e)

marking abbreviations §2.10

hyphen, in place names §4.1(c)

hyphens §2.6, §3.5

non-English quotation marks §2.12(c)

question mark, in quotations §2.13

single quotation marks:

to delimit quotations §2.13

to enclose translations §2.12

used in long quotations §2.14


use in DOIs §6.2

use in URLs §6.3

square brackets:

for editorial additions §2.8

to indicate omissions §2.12(d)

stroke, to mark line division in poetry §2.13

Yen sign, for currency §5.4

quotation marks, see punctuation marks

quotations §2.12

from plays or scripts §2.15

long §2.14

omissions from §2.12(d)

short §2.12(a)

when to display §2.12(a)

ranges and spans §2.7, §5.2

referencing, see citations

repositories of manuscripts §7.7

repositories of open-access articles §7.10

reprints §7.2

roman numerals §5.3

Russian personal names §4.3(d)

Scandinavian letters in alphabetical order §8.2

scholarly editions §7.2

online-only §7.3(a)

still in progress §7.3(a)

with author’s name in title §7.3(a)

series (of books) §7.3(a)

sig. and sigs §7.3(a)

single quotation marks, see punctuation marks

small capitals:

for books of the Bible §7.3(d)

for postcodes and some abbreviations §1.2(c)

for volume numbers of books §5.3

social media §7.5

soft sign ь §1.2(f)


citing §7.8

for generating citations §1.2(h)

for indexing §8.5

songwriters §7.8


after French punctuation §1.2(e)

avoiding multiple spaces §1.2(e)

of lines §1.2(a)

special issue of a journal §7.4


-ize vs -ise §2.1

British vs American §2.1

early modern §2.12(b)

hyphenated or not §2.6, §3.5

names of canonical authors §8.1

plurals §2.4

words ending in é §2.2

square brackets, see punctuation marks

sub-headings §1.2(d)

tables of data §1.4

television programmes:

citing §7.8

television stills, captions for §1.3(b)


citing §7.10


abbreviated §2.9

alternative titles with ‘or’ §7.3(a)

capitalization of §3.4

containing other titles §2.11

italicization of §3.8(a)

of books in citations §7.3(a)

of exhibitions §3.8(c)


of quotations §2.8

of titles of books and films §3.8(d)


of Arabic §1.2(f)

of Cyrillic §1.2(f)

of Russian names §4.3(d)

Twitter/X §7.5

units for scientific measurements §5.5


changing nature of §6.1

format to follow §6.3

when citing websites and social media §7.5

volume numbers:

for journals §7.4

for multi-volume works §7.3(a)

small capitals for §5.2

Washington, DC §2.10

Wayback Machine §6.3


citing §7.5

inclusion in bibliographies §8.3

individual pages within large §6.3

weights and measures §5.5

Welsh personal names §4.3(d)

Welsh place names §4.1(b)

word alphabetization §8.2

works cited, see bibliographies

ContentsIntroductionChangesQuick GuideChapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8