MHRA Style Citation Demonstration

According to the MHRA Style Guide, this item should be cited in a bibliography as follows:

Correia, Luís Grosso. 2013. ‘“The lyceums work in silence, they do not advertise, and have no time for envy or rivalry”: A Case Study of the Liceu Rodrigues de Freitas/D. Manuel II during the Portuguese Estado Novo’, in Portuguese Studies, 29.1, pp. 21–43, doi:10.5699/portstudies.29.1.0021

This is in the author-date variant of MHRA style. MHRA's journals don't allow author-date citation, but some of its book series (notably Legenda) do: please talk to your editor before using this. (To see the demonstration for regular style instead, follow this link.)

Let's take this bibliography entry one step at a time:

Step 1. We start with the name(s) of the author(s) of the article, inverting the first name into the form 'Forename, Surname'.

Correia, Luís Grosso

Step 2. In author-date style, we have a full stop, then the year, then another full stop. If there are multiple entries with the same author and year, letters would be used to distinguish them: e.g., Bloggs 1994a, Bloggs 1994b.

Correia, Luís Grosso. 2013.

Step 3. Now we add the title, in single inverted commas. Any single quotation marks already in the title must be converted to doubles.

Correia, Luís Grosso. 2013. ‘“The lyceums work in silence, they do not advertise, and have no time for envy or rivalry”: A Case Study of the Liceu Rodrigues de Freitas/D. Manuel II during the Portuguese Estado Novo’

Step 4. We have to say where this comes from, so:

Correia, Luís Grosso. 2013. ‘“The lyceums work in silence, they do not advertise, and have no time for envy or rivalry”: A Case Study of the Liceu Rodrigues de Freitas/D. Manuel II during the Portuguese Estado Novo’, in

Step 5. Next we identify where the article is to be found, using italics, not quotation marks, for the volume title.

Correia, Luís Grosso. 2013. ‘“The lyceums work in silence, they do not advertise, and have no time for envy or rivalry”: A Case Study of the Liceu Rodrigues de Freitas/D. Manuel II during the Portuguese Estado Novo’, in Portuguese Studies, 29.1

Step 6. Now the pagination. And we use 'p.' or 'pp.' as appropriate. Journal articles used to omit 'pp.' in MHRA Style, but the Fourth Edition Guide (2024) removes this exception, so now page ranges in journals are treated just the same as in books. Number ranges are elided in the last two digits: thus '2234-2265' should be '2234-65', and '102-109' should be '102-09'.

Correia, Luís Grosso. 2013. ‘“The lyceums work in silence, they do not advertise, and have no time for envy or rivalry”: A Case Study of the Liceu Rodrigues de Freitas/D. Manuel II during the Portuguese Estado Novo’, in Portuguese Studies, 29.1, pp. 21–43

Step 7. This contribution has a DOI, so the Fourth Edition Guide (2024) requires us to quote it, like so.

Correia, Luís Grosso. 2013. ‘“The lyceums work in silence, they do not advertise, and have no time for envy or rivalry”: A Case Study of the Liceu Rodrigues de Freitas/D. Manuel II during the Portuguese Estado Novo’, in Portuguese Studies, 29.1, pp. 21–43, doi:10.5699/portstudies.29.1.0021

And that's the finished bibliography entry. Note that there's no final full stop.

So how about citations in the main text, or in footnotes or endnotes?

The advantage of the author-date system is that these are very concise. In fact, you don't need a note at all. Suppose we quote from page 21:

The author reminds us of Shakespeare’s view: ‘Better a foolish wit than a witty fool’ (Correia 2013: 21).

And notes are concise too. There's no difference in how to treat the first and subsequent notes.

34 Correia 2013.

So is author-date easier than regular MHRA style? Not always. Firstly, it may not be allowed by your editor, so check before using. But secondly, it makes books easier to write, but only at the cost of making them harder to proof-read. If you discover at the last moment that Blenkinsop 1996 was actually published in 1995, that can mean hundreds of corrections to make, and it gets worse if an author has many publications in the same year, because Blenkinsop 1996e and Blenkinsop 1996d are easy to confuse.