MHRA Style Guide
Fourth Edition (2024)

Edited by Chloe Paver

Open access licence:
CC BY-NC 4.0
CC BY-NC 4.0 logo

MHRA Style Guide

Modern Humanities Research Association

  20 February 2024  •  106pp

ISBN: 978-1-839542-48-0 (paperback)  •  RRP £14.99, $18.99, €16.99

ISBN: 978-1-839546-07-5 (Hosted on this website)

Open Access with doi: 10.59860/msg.b47db8a


The MHRA Style Guide has been widely used by scholarly authors writing about the Humanities since its first edition in 1971. It offers practical guidance on how to cite sources from medieval manuscripts to software and social media. Rules are provided to help working authors deal consistently with issues from quoting weights and measures (‘5kg’, or ‘5 kg’?) to the spelling of European city names (‘Lyons’, or ‘Lyon’?). There is detailed advice on indexing and on the compilation of bibliographies, including thorny issues around how to alphabetize names.

While MHRA style is used by many journals and book series, it is also standard in many British universities as the style to follow for essays, dissertations, and doctoral theses. A Quick Guide allows new users to get started without fuss.

Scholarly practice evolves over time, and this 2024 revision is the result of close scrutiny by a joint panel of scholarly authors and editors. The aim was to clarify, to simplify, and to modernize, reflecting today’s ubiquitous use of online resources.

The Guide is itself freely available online, and is fully Open Access, published under a Creative Commons licence. This print edition, which has now cumulatively sold over 50,000 copies, is made available as cheaply as is practicable.


MHRA Style Guide: Fourth Edition
Chloe Paver, Derek Connon, Simon F. Davies, Gerard Lowe, Graham Nelson, Lucy O’Meara
Complete volume as single PDF

Bibliography entry:

Paver, Chloe (ed.), MHRA Style Guide: Fourth Edition (2024) (MHRA, 2024)

First footnote reference: 35 MHRA Style Guide: Fourth Edition (2024), ed. by Chloe Paver (MHRA, 2024), p. 21.

Subsequent footnote reference: 37 Paver, p. 47.

(To see how these citations were worked out, follow this link.)

Bibliography entry:

Paver, Chloe (ed.). 2024. MHRA Style Guide: Fourth Edition (2024) (MHRA)

Example citation: ‘A quotation occurring on page 21 of this work’ (Paver 2024: 21).

Example footnote reference: 35 Paver 2024: 21.

(To see how these citations were worked out, follow this link.)

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