MHRA Style Citation Demonstration

According to the MHRA Style Guide, this item should be cited in a bibliography as follows:

Edited, and translated by D. Enright-Clark Shoukri, Liber Apologeticus de Omni Statu Humanae Naturae: A Defence of Human Nature in Every State (c. 1460): A Moral Play by Thomas Chaundler, Publications of the Modern Humanities Research Association, 5 (MHRA, 1974)

This is how standard MHRA style would look. Some of its book series (notably Legenda) allow an alternative citation system called 'author-date', but please talk to your editor before using it. (To see the demonstration for author-date, follow this link.)

Let's take this bibliography entry one step at a time:

Step 1. The entry begins with the author(s) or editor(s) of the volume, with the first name inverted into Surname, Forename. This is because a Bibliography is a list in surname order, so we need a surname up front.

Edited, and translated by D. Enright-Clark Shoukri

Step 2. Now a comma, not a full stop:

Edited, and translated by D. Enright-Clark Shoukri,

Step 3. Here we have the book's title, in italics, not quotation marks.

Edited, and translated by D. Enright-Clark Shoukri, Liber Apologeticus de Omni Statu Humanae Naturae: A Defence of Human Nature in Every State (c. 1460): A Moral Play by Thomas Chaundler

Step 4. This book belongs to a series, so we'll name that. If the series is numbered, we give the number, too. No italics, no quotation marks in the series name.

Edited, and translated by D. Enright-Clark Shoukri, Liber Apologeticus de Omni Statu Humanae Naturae: A Defence of Human Nature in Every State (c. 1460): A Moral Play by Thomas Chaundler, Publications of the Modern Humanities Research Association, 5

Step 5. Since this is a book, not a journal issue, we have to identify its source, in round brackets. Until 2024, MHRA style required a place of publication - for example, New York or Oxford. This is no longer given except in special circumstances.

Edited, and translated by D. Enright-Clark Shoukri, Liber Apologeticus de Omni Statu Humanae Naturae: A Defence of Human Nature in Every State (c. 1460): A Moral Play by Thomas Chaundler, Publications of the Modern Humanities Research Association, 5 (

Step 6. Now a colon, a space, and the publisher's name. Abbreviating to 'MHRA' is fine here.

Edited, and translated by D. Enright-Clark Shoukri, Liber Apologeticus de Omni Statu Humanae Naturae: A Defence of Human Nature in Every State (c. 1460): A Moral Play by Thomas Chaundler, Publications of the Modern Humanities Research Association, 5 (MHRA

Step 7. Then the year of first publication, and we're done with the bracketed part.

Edited, and translated by D. Enright-Clark Shoukri, Liber Apologeticus de Omni Statu Humanae Naturae: A Defence of Human Nature in Every State (c. 1460): A Moral Play by Thomas Chaundler, Publications of the Modern Humanities Research Association, 5 (MHRA, 1974)

And that's the finished bibliography entry. Note that there's no final full stop.

So how about citations in footnotes or endnotes?

In standard MHRA style, the first time the work is cited in a note, it should be cited in full. This looks very like a Bibliography entry, but:

  • The author's name doesn't always come first: only for monographs. For collections and editions, the title comes first.
  • Even if the author's name does come first, it's back to being the right way round, so it's Forename Surname, not Surname, Forename;
  • Unlike Bibliography entries, notes are punctuated as sentences, and usually end in full stops.

Suppose we want to cite a passage on pages 24 to 27:

34 See Liber Apologeticus de Omni Statu Humanae Naturae: A Defence of Human Nature in Every State (c. 1460): A Moral Play by Thomas Chaundler, edited and translated by D. Enright-Clark Shoukri, Publications of the Modern Humanities Research Association, 5 (MHRA, 1974), pp. 24-27.

But in any subsequent notes, a heavily abbreviated form is used:

37 Compare Edited and Shoukri, p. 17.