MHRA Style Citation Demonstration

According to the MHRA Style Guide, this item should be cited in a bibliography as follows:

Edited, and translated by D. Enright-Clark Shoukri. 1974. Liber Apologeticus de Omni Statu Humanae Naturae: A Defence of Human Nature in Every State (c. 1460): A Moral Play by Thomas Chaundler, Publications of the Modern Humanities Research Association, 5 (MHRA)

This is in the author-date variant of MHRA style. MHRA's journals don't allow author-date citation, but some of its book series (notably Legenda) do: please talk to your editor before using this. (To see the demonstration for regular style instead, follow this link.)

Let's take this bibliography entry one step at a time:

Step 1. The entry begins with the author(s) or editor(s) of the volume, with the first name inverted into Surname, Forename. This is because a Bibliography is a list in surname order, so we need a surname up front.

Edited, and translated by D. Enright-Clark Shoukri

Step 2. Now a full stop, the year of publication, and another a full stop:

Edited, and translated by D. Enright-Clark Shoukri. 1974.

Step 3. Here we have the book's title, in italics, not quotation marks.

Edited, and translated by D. Enright-Clark Shoukri. 1974. Liber Apologeticus de Omni Statu Humanae Naturae: A Defence of Human Nature in Every State (c. 1460): A Moral Play by Thomas Chaundler

Step 4. This book belongs to a series, so we'll name that. If the series is numbered, we give the number, too. No italics, no quotation marks in the series name.

Edited, and translated by D. Enright-Clark Shoukri. 1974. Liber Apologeticus de Omni Statu Humanae Naturae: A Defence of Human Nature in Every State (c. 1460): A Moral Play by Thomas Chaundler, Publications of the Modern Humanities Research Association, 5

Step 5. Since this is a book, not a journal issue, we have to identify its source, in round brackets. Until 2024, MHRA style required a place of publication - for example, New York or Oxford. This is no longer given except in special circumstances.

Edited, and translated by D. Enright-Clark Shoukri. 1974. Liber Apologeticus de Omni Statu Humanae Naturae: A Defence of Human Nature in Every State (c. 1460): A Moral Play by Thomas Chaundler, Publications of the Modern Humanities Research Association, 5 (

Step 6. Now a colon, a space, and the publisher's name. Abbreviating to 'MHRA' is fine here.

Edited, and translated by D. Enright-Clark Shoukri. 1974. Liber Apologeticus de Omni Statu Humanae Naturae: A Defence of Human Nature in Every State (c. 1460): A Moral Play by Thomas Chaundler, Publications of the Modern Humanities Research Association, 5 (MHRA

Step 7. Since we had the date of first publication up front, we don't need it here, so we're done with the bracketed part.

Edited, and translated by D. Enright-Clark Shoukri. 1974. Liber Apologeticus de Omni Statu Humanae Naturae: A Defence of Human Nature in Every State (c. 1460): A Moral Play by Thomas Chaundler, Publications of the Modern Humanities Research Association, 5 (MHRA)

And that's the finished bibliography entry. Note that there's no final full stop.

So how about citations in the main text, or in footnotes or endnotes?

The advantage of the author-date system is that these are very concise. In fact, you don't need a note at all. Suppose we quote from page 21:

The author reminds us of Shakespeare’s view: ‘Better a foolish wit than a witty fool’ (Edited and Shoukri 1974: 21).

And notes are concise too. There's no difference in how to treat the first and subsequent notes.

34 Edited and Shoukri 1974.

So is author-date easier than regular MHRA style? Not always. Firstly, it may not be allowed by your editor, so check before using. But secondly, it makes books easier to write, but only at the cost of making them harder to proof-read. If you discover at the last moment that Blenkinsop 1996 was actually published in 1995, that can mean hundreds of corrections to make, and it gets worse if an author has many publications in the same year, because Blenkinsop 1996e and Blenkinsop 1996d are easy to confuse.