From Chapter 1, 'Preparing Material For Publication'

1.3   Preparation of Copy

1.3.1   General

The initial submission of an article or monograph will usually be as electronic copy. Editors will circulate the text in this form to readers or referees. In the case of journal articles or conference papers sent anonymously to readers, the author’s name will have to be omitted from all pages except any cover page (which the reader will not see). The editors may use a hard copy to indicate minor amendments and to add instructions to the typesetter. The typesetter may require a printed version to ensure that all parts of the copy are present in the electronic version and to resolve any problems that may arise when the word-processor file is converted to the typesetter’s system. Where special characters or accents or non-Latin scripts are involved, this is essential.

Authors should resist the temptation to overdesign their final copy. The increasing capacity of word processors to manipulate multiple fonts, type sizes, and page layout enables authors to prepare copy to a standard matching good typography, but many of these effects are incompatible with typesetters’ systems and are lost on conversion. In particular, automatic numbering of lists, headings, and cross-references, in which the word processor fills in the correct number, should be avoided as the codes embedded in the computer files are specific to the word processor and may be lost on conversion. See also 11.5 on avoiding automatic tags or codes. Where authors wish to structure an article into sections, conventional headings (see 1.3.4) should be used.

Double-spacing (to allow for editorial corrections) and one size of a simple typeface should be used throughout, including footnotes or endnotes and extended quotations. Margins of at least 2.5 cm should be left all round and the top quarter of the first page of the text left clear, for a sub-editor’s additions. The first line of each paragraph (except the first paragraph of a chapter, section, or article) should be indented by one tab character; do not indent text by inserting multiple spaces. Do not adopt the convention of starting each paragraph full left after an extra line-space; the space between paragraphs should be the normal line spacing. Text should be left-justified but not fully justified. The word processor’s automatic hyphenation must be switched off. Authors will be aware that word processors may change spellings, punctuations, and spacing in foreign languages.

Use a serif font such as Times New Roman to avoid confusion of characters such as upper-case ‘I’ and lower-case ‘l’, which can look almost identical in sans serif typefaces such as Arial (‘I’ and ‘l’ respectively).

1.3.2   Corrections, Insertions, and Comments

Authors should make any corrections to the word-processor file and submit a fully revised version electronically. Editors may need to mark corrections on hard copy, and, if brief, these should be added legibly in a prominent colour at the appropriate point in the text, so the typesetter can add each emendation to the file efficiently. If a correction consists of more than one or two sentences, or contains typographically complex text, it should be printed on a separate sheet of paper and also supplied electronically, with each word-processor file clearly named and the same convention used for the accompanying hard copy, e.g. ‘Insert A’. At the appropriate point in the hard copy of the main text write ‘Insert A attached’.

1.3.3   Fonts and Capitals

The typesetter will normally have available typefaces in both upper case (large capitals) and lower case, each in roman, italic, and bold versions; in addition, the system should include a typographically separate small capital font. This should not be confused with capital letters printed in a smaller type size since small capital fonts have been separately designed. These alphabets may be seen thus:


small capitals

lower case


italic small capitals

italic lower case


bold small capitals

bold lower case

LARGE CAPITALS should be typed as such; text to be set in small capitals should also be typed as such, by using the word processor’s small capitals formatting effect.

For text to be set in italic type (see Chapter 7), authors should use the word processor’s italic form of a font, which can be automatically converted. Do not type the copy in roman type and underline it, as was the practice when using a typewriter.

The bold form of a font should not normally be used for emphasis, since it is too obtrusive. However, limited use may be appropriate in some contexts as an alternative to the use of italic, e.g. for highlighting words in the course of lexical analysis.

Ensure that a legible size of font is used so that superior (superscript) and inferior (subscript) figures and diacritical and punctuation marks can be clearly seen.

1.3.4   Headings and Subdivisions

Do not type headings or subheadings in capitals and do not underline or italicize them, since either method may conflict with the style which the editor wishes the printer to follow. Headings and subheadings should not normally end with a full stop or colon.

Major subdivisions within the text, if required, should be marked by increased spacing. The first line of a new subdivision should not be indented. A convenient system for designating numbered subdivisions is to number all sections and subsections with arabic numerals and express them in series, divided by full stops, as in this Style Guide. Avoid excessive levels of subdivision.

1.3.5   Dashes

For discussion of usage, see 5.2. Word processors have the facility to indicate the short dash or en rule (–), the long dash or em rule (—), and the extended dash or 2-em rule (——). If you cannot access these characters, type -- without spaces for the en rule (but there is no need to do this for number ranges), -- with a space on either side for the em rule, and --- for the 2-em rule.

According to these principles, the examples of usage given in the left-hand column will be typed as in the right-hand column:

the 193945 war

the 1939-45 war

the north–south divide

the north--south divide

Some people — an ever increasing number — deplore this

Some people -- an ever increasing number -- deplore this

Brontë, Charlotte, Shirley

Brontë, Charlotte, Shirley
--- Villette

1.3.6   Running Heads

Shortened headings may be required at the heads of printed pages after the first page of the article or chapter. A preferred abbreviated version of the title could be provided by the author on submission of copy.

1.3.7   Numbering of Pages

Ensure that all pages (including notes or references) are numbered consecutively in the top right-hand corner.

1.3.8   Typing Conventions

The basic formatting of the text, particularly the division into pages and lines, should be left to the typesetter. In particular, do not use any of the ad hoc formatting devices available on your word processor, such as manual page breaks and variations of page dimensions, to fit text neatly on whole pages. This may detract from the visual aspect of your final copy, but it will avoid any need for the typesetter to change the format of your copy before it can be processed. Use hyphens only as recommended in 2.3. The return key (or paragraph marker) should be used only at the end of paragraphs and headings, or to divide the lines of tables, lists, or verse quotations.

Double spaces should not be used in normal text, and should be eliminated from your copy before submission. In particular, type only a single space between the end of a sentence and the first character of the next, and following major punctuation marks such as colons and semicolons.

Do not right-justify or centre any parts of the text, as this will introduce additional spaces which are not easily distinguished from typed spaces. Do not use coloured backgrounds to highlight text.

1.3.9   Special Characters and Diacritics, and Non-Latin Scripts

If your text contains characters that are not directly available from a standard computer keyboard, you should consult the editor or publisher as to the best way to insert them in your copy. The special character sets provided by major word processors are acceptable to many publishers; devices for creating and combining characters should be avoided. Some publishers specify codes for non-standard characters. Where your text contains a significant number of special characters, it is advisable to list them all separately, for submission along with the final copy.

Alphabets such as Cyrillic and Greek and the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) may cause conversion problems for typesetters, who can suggest a specific method of producing the copy (e.g. through the use of Unicode-based fonts). For transliteration of Cyrillic characters, see 3.3.3. Additional problems arise with other alphabetic scripts (such as Arabic and Hebrew) and non-alphabetic scripts (such as Chinese and Japanese). In all such cases, consult the editor at an early stage.

The following publications contain much useful information on copy preparation and typesetting for languages other than English, both those using the Latin alphabet and others:

New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors: The Essential A–Z Guide to the Written Word (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014)

The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edn (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2010)

1.3.10   Notes

Footnote or endnote reference numbers should be inserted following any punctuation except a dash, and at the end of a sentence if possible:

[…] composed.23

Many typesetting programs are able to convert the standard footnoting and endnoting facilities of a word processor, but it is recommended that authors check the guidelines for authors provided by the publication, or discuss the use of these facilities with the editor or publisher, before preparing an article or book for submission. Where these facilities are unavailable or should not be used, notes should be supplied in a separate file, with reference numbers typed as superior (superscript) figures in the appropriate place.

The notes will normally be set in type smaller than that used for the text but should be provided by the author in full type size with double spacing (whether generated from a word-processor noting facility or supplied as a separate text file) and numbered consecutively throughout an article or chapter, but not throughout a whole book or thesis.

1.3.11   Illustrations

The inclusion of any illustrative material should always be discussed with the editor prior to submission. For all illustrations that are in copyright, the author must obtain, from all interested rightsholders, written permission to reproduce in all publication formats (print or electronic), including confirmation of the credit to be printed acknowledging permission to reproduce. Top copies of permission documents should be supplied with the illustrations. The responsibility for payment of costs for reproduction should also be discussed with the editor at an early stage.

Increasingly, illustrations can be supplied electronically and for most typesetters this will be the preferred format. The appropriate resolution, file format, and means of submission should be discussed with the editor. It is recommended that TIFF or EPS files should be supplied, saved at a minimum input scanning resolution of 300 dpi (dots-per-inch) for colour, 350400 dpi for halftones, 800 dpi for simple line, and 1200 dpi for fine line images. JPEG images are usually not recommended for printing purposes, unless files are available at print-quality resolutions. All illustrations should be supplied as separate files, not embedded within the text.

Where illustrations are not available in electronic format, a clear original in black ink on white paper or board for line illustrations, and glossy black-and-white photographs for halftones, should be provided. For all illustrations indicate clearly on the reverse the title of the book or journal, the author’s name, and the figure or plate number. Be careful to write very lightly in pencil on the reverse of an original or it may be spoiled. Some reduction may improve definition, but excessive reduction may cause detail, such as fine lines or close shading, to be lost. Normally the original should not be more than four times larger, nor should it be smaller, than the final required size of the image. A general indication of the preferred size of reproduction, e.g. ‘half page’, ‘text width’, along with specific groupings, e.g. ‘figures 1 and 2 on same page’, should be given in an accompanying note as a guideline for the typesetter. If part of the illustration is to be omitted, indicate on an accompanying photocopy the portion to be masked off. Where this is not possible, indicate lightly on the reverse of the original or on an attached paper overlay.

The style for referencing an illustration within the text should be ascertained from the editor or guidelines for authors but is generally by insertion of the phrase ‘Figure []’. A reference is necessary because an illustration is unlikely to follow the relevant text immediately, for technical reasons. Figures should be numbered in sequence in arabic numerals throughout an article or chapter.

The term ‘plate’ is applicable only to pages of illustrations printed, and numbered, separately from the text; it refers to the page, not to the illustrations on it (so one plate may contain more than one illustration). Plates should be numbered in sequence in roman numerals and a reference given within the text (‘Plate […]’).

Authors who are not sure of the intended treatment of their illustrations should consult the editor before numbering them.

Captions for illustrations should be supplied as a separate file. Acknowledgement of permission to reproduce the illustration, where appropriate, should be indicated below the caption.

1.3.12   Tables

Tables may not always convert satisfactorily from word-processed files. They should be prepared using the word processor’s standard table routine if possible, but, if not, columns should be separated by standard tabulation. They should not be embedded within the text but should be either placed at the end of the text or supplied as separate files. A reference to the table should be included within the text at an appropriate point (‘Table […]’), as, for technical reasons, it may not be possible for the table to be printed immediately following the relevant text. Tables should be numbered in sequence in arabic numerals throughout an article or chapter. Bear in mind that the pages of your published text are likely to be narrower than your word-processed pages.

1.3.13   Cross-References

Since they cannot be finalized until the text is typeset, cross-references within an article or book should be typed as triple zeros:

See above [or below], p. 000, n. 000.

Internal cross-referencing, i.e. cross-references to pages within your own document, should be avoided as far as possible; it is preferable to cross-refer to chapters, sections, notes, etc. Where internal cross-referencing to a page is unavoidable, cross-references should be carefully checked and marked on the proofs.

Contents • Back to 1.2  General • Forward to 1.4  Author-Typeset Formats • Index