MHRA Style Citation Demonstration

According to the MHRA Style Guide, this item should be cited in a bibliography as follows:

McMillin, Arnold, introduction to , in McMillin, Arnold, Spring Shoots: Young Belarusian Poets in the Early Twenty-First Century, Publications of the Modern Humanities Research Association, 19 (Cambridge: MHRA, 2015), pp. 1–2

This is how standard MHRA style would look. Some of its book series (notably Legenda) allow an alternative citation system called 'author-date', but please talk to your editor before using it. (To see the demonstration for author-date, follow this link.)

Let's take this bibliography entry one step at a time:

Step 1. We start with the name(s) of the author(s) of the article, inverting the first name into the form 'Forename, Surname'.

McMillin, Arnold

Step 2. This is regular MHRA style, so the name's followed by a comma.

McMillin, Arnold,

Step 3. Now we add the title, in single inverted commas. Any single quotation marks already in the title must be converted to doubles.

McMillin, Arnold, introduction to

Step 4. We have to say where this comes from, so:

McMillin, Arnold, introduction to , in

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Step 5. Next, the author(s) of the book, which come before the title because this is a monograph.

McMillin, Arnold, introduction to , in McMillin, Arnold

Step 6. Now a comma, not a full stop:

McMillin, Arnold, introduction to , in McMillin, Arnold,

Step 7. Here we have the book's title, in italics, not quotation marks.

McMillin, Arnold, introduction to , in McMillin, Arnold, Spring Shoots: Young Belarusian Poets in the Early Twenty-First Century

Step 8. This book belongs to a series, so we'll name that. If the series is numbered, we give the number, too. No italics, no quotation marks in the series name.

McMillin, Arnold, introduction to , in McMillin, Arnold, Spring Shoots: Young Belarusian Poets in the Early Twenty-First Century, Publications of the Modern Humanities Research Association, 19

Step 9. Since this is a book, not a journal issue, we have to identify its source, in round brackets. First, place of publication. This can be ambiguous. MHRA now has its registered address in Cambridge, so let's give that.

McMillin, Arnold, introduction to , in McMillin, Arnold, Spring Shoots: Young Belarusian Poets in the Early Twenty-First Century, Publications of the Modern Humanities Research Association, 19 (Cambridge

Step 10. Now a colon, a space, and the publisher's name. Abbreviating to 'MHRA' is fine here.

McMillin, Arnold, introduction to , in McMillin, Arnold, Spring Shoots: Young Belarusian Poets in the Early Twenty-First Century, Publications of the Modern Humanities Research Association, 19 (Cambridge: MHRA

Step 11. Then the year of first publication, and we're done with the bracketed part.

McMillin, Arnold, introduction to , in McMillin, Arnold, Spring Shoots: Young Belarusian Poets in the Early Twenty-First Century, Publications of the Modern Humanities Research Association, 19 (Cambridge: MHRA, 2015)

Step 12. Now the pagination. This is a book, so we use 'p.' or 'pp.' as appropriate. Number ranges are elided in the last two digits: thus '2234-2265' should be '2234-65', and '102-109' should be '102-09'.

McMillin, Arnold, introduction to , in McMillin, Arnold, Spring Shoots: Young Belarusian Poets in the Early Twenty-First Century, Publications of the Modern Humanities Research Association, 19 (Cambridge: MHRA, 2015), pp. 1–2

And that's the finished bibliography entry. Note that there's no final full stop.

So how about citations in footnotes or endnotes?

In standard MHRA style, the first time the work is cited in a note, it should be cited in full. This looks very like a Bibliography entry, but:

  • The author's name doesn't always come first: only for monographs. For collections and editions, the title comes first.
  • Even if the author's name does come first, it's back to being the right way round, so it's Forename Surname, not Surname, Forename;
  • Unlike Bibliography entries, notes are punctuated as sentences, and usually end in full stops.

Suppose we want to cite a passage on pages 24 to 27:

34 See Arnold McMillin, introduction to , in Arnold McMillin, Spring Shoots: Young Belarusian Poets in the Early Twenty-First Century, Publications of the Modern Humanities Research Association, 19 (Cambridge: MHRA, 2015), pp. 1–2, pp. 24-27.

But in any subsequent notes, a heavily abbreviated form is used:

37 Compare McMillin, p. 17.