The History of Language Learning and Teaching III
Across Cultures

Edited by Nicola McLelland and Richard Smith

Legenda (General Series) vol 3 of 3


30 September 2018  •  298pp

ISBN: 978-1-781887-00-4 (hardback)  •  RRP £75, $99, €85

ISBN: 978-1-781883-75-4 (paperback, 7 October 2020  )  •  RRP £12.49, $14.99, €14.99

ISBN: 978-1-781883-76-1 (JSTOR ebook)

Access online: Books@JSTOR


In addition to its original library hardback edition, this title is now on sale in the new student-priced Legenda paperback range.

This is volume 3 of 3. See also volume 1 here and volume 2 here.

This three-volume set brings together current research in the history of language learning and teaching (HoLLT) in Europe and beyond. Providing the first overview of research in the field, it will be an indispensable reference for teachers, teacher educators and all those interested in the history of language learning and teaching and the history of applied linguistics avant la lettre.

Part I of Volume III (The Place of Culture in Language Teaching) examines the history of how 'foreign cultures' have been presented to learners in language classrooms and language materials. Part II (Beyond Europe) presents studies of the history of language learning and teaching beyond Europe, including the Middle East, China, Japan, India and New Zealand.

Nicola McLelland is Professor of German and History of Linguistics at the University of Nottingham. She has published widely in the history of German linguistics and the history of language learning, and is co-editor of the journal Language & History.

Richard Smith is a Reader in English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics at the University of Warwick. Founder of the Warwick ELT Archive and the AILA Research Network on History of Language Learning and Teaching, he has been active in the fields of historical research and teacher-research in language education.

Download: Introduction to the History, excerpted from Volume I (PDF)


  • ‘Es erhebe nicht den Anspruch, seinen Gegenstand ganz abzudecken, sondern biete “an illustrative sample of in-depth studies” (I: 2). Doch möchte es das Studium der Geschichte des Fremdsprachenlehrens und -lernens (“History of Language Learning and Teaching”, HoLLT) wenn nicht begründen, so doch maß- geblich begleiten, denn bisher sei die Forschung an verschiedenen Stellen getrennt und unkoordiniert betrieben worden (I: 3–4). Mit diesem Werk werde HoLLT etabliert oder gar zu einer Disziplin erweitert (I: 5).’ — Helmut Glück, Historiographia Linguistica 46.1, 2019, 208-17 (full text online)
  • ‘The studies cover analyses of instruction books and didactic materials, and the cultural representations and values found in those; teaching and education policies or applications of phonetics for teaching. One study also examines creating and maintaining international penfriend networks.’ — unsigned notice, Forum for Modern Language Studies 55.4, October 2019, 496 (full text online)
  • ‘As far as I know, this three-volume collection is the first-ever attempt at a comparative and truly global history of our discipline... The three volumes just discussed constitute a treasure trove to the riches of which a single reviewer can do scant justice.’ — Arthur van Essen, ELT Journal 74.1, January 2020, 89-93
  • ‘The three volumes of The History of Language Learning and Teaching offer a significant contribution to the emerging interdisciplinary, intercultural and plurilinguistic research area of historical foreign language didactics... a very stimulating and rich mosaic of FLT history.’ — Britta Juska-Bacher, Paedagogica Historica online, 25 Nov 2020 (full text online)
  • ‘Edited collections of this breadth and quality are rare and these three volumes make an important and vitalising contribution to the multidisciplinary field of HoLLT. The extensive range of case studies provides a highly readable and scholarly reference which will be undoubtedly valued by language teachers and students and researchers of language and education historiography.’ — Simon Coffey, Language & History 31 Mar 2020 (full text online)


Nicola McLelland, Richard Smith
Chapter 1 Comparing Cultural Content in English-Language Textbooks For Germans in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
Friederike Klippel
Chapter 2 Internationalism and Education in the 1920s and the Case of Foreign Language Teaching Policy in Britain
Michael Byram
Chapter 3 Creating An International Penfriend Network at the End of the Nineteenth Century: the Scholars’ International Correspondence (1896‒1914)
Marlis Schleich
Chapter 4 the Other in the History of German-Language Teaching: England and France, 1900–2000
Anke Wegner
Chapter 5 Getting To Know the Other: Representation of ‘the English’ in German Cultural Readers of the 1920s
Felicitas Sharp
Chapter 6 Connecting Nations After the Third Reich: Culture in the English-Language Classrooms of Post-War Germany
Dorottya Ruisz
Chapter 7 Teaching Literature in the French-Language Classroom at German Grammar Schools (gymnasien) Between 1945 and 1985
Meike Hethey
Chapter 8 ‘A Dragoman For Travellers’: Popular Arabic Instruction Books and Their Authors in Late Nineteenth-Century Egypt
Rachel Mairs
Chapter 9 the History of Teaching and Learning German in Africa: the Case of Cameroon
Vera E. Boulleys
Chapter 10 Westerners Learning Chinese: Nineteenth-Century Didactic Materials
Mariarosaria Gianninoto
Chapter 11 Isawa Shuji and Visible Speech in Japan: An Early Application of Phonetics To the Teaching of Chinese Pronunciation
Chang Zou
Chapter 12 Chinese Language Educators in Meiji-Era Japan: Miyajima Daihachi and Zhang Tingyan
Yang Tiezheng
Chapter 13 Der Schüler Ist Fleissig. Wir Sind Freunde [the Pupil Is Diligent. We Are Friends]: Teaching German Language and Cultural Values in China, C. 1906–081
Nicola McLelland
Chapter 14 Spanish As Ersatz: Advocacy For Spanish Language Education in the United States, 1914–1945
Jeff Bale
Chapter 15 Regards Sur L’histoire De L’enseignement/apprentissage Du Français Langue Étrangère Au Proche-Orient: Cas De La Jordanie
Carine Zanchi, Akram Odeh
Chapter 16 Intentions For Teaching and Failures of Learning: Historical Roots of English-Language Education Policies in Post-Independence India
Krishna Dixit, Amol Padwad
Chapter 17 the ‘Wave’ of Japanese Language Education in Secondary Schools: the Case of Aotearoa/new Zealand
Sharon Harvey
Nicola McLelland, Richard Smith

Bibliography entry:

McLelland, Nicola, and Richard Smith (eds), The History of Language Learning and Teaching III: Across Cultures (Cambridge: Legenda, 2018)

First footnote reference: 35 The History of Language Learning and Teaching III: Across Cultures, ed. by Nicola McLelland and Richard Smith (Cambridge: Legenda, 2018), p. 21.

Subsequent footnote reference: 37 McLelland and Smith, p. 47.

(To see how these citations were worked out, follow this link.)

Bibliography entry:

McLelland, Nicola, and Richard Smith (eds). 2018. The History of Language Learning and Teaching III: Across Cultures (Cambridge: Legenda)

Example citation: ‘A quotation occurring on page 21 of this work’ (McLelland and Smith 2018: 21).

Example footnote reference: 35 McLelland and Smith 2018: 21.

(To see how these citations were worked out, follow this link.)

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