MHRA Style Citation Demonstration

According to the MHRA Style Guide, this item should be cited in a bibliography as follows:

Petrovskaia, Natalia I., ‘Chapter List’, in Delw y Byd: A Medieval Welsh Encyclopedia, ed. by Natalia I. Petrovskaia, MHRA Library of Medieval Welsh Literature (Cambridge: MHRA, 2020), pp. 43–45

This is how standard MHRA style would look. Some of its book series (notably Legenda) allow an alternative citation system called 'author-date', but please talk to your editor before using it. (To see the demonstration for author-date, follow this link.)

Let's take this bibliography entry one step at a time:

Step 1. We start with the name(s) of the author(s) of the article, inverting the first name into the form 'Forename, Surname'.

Petrovskaia, Natalia I.

Step 2. This is regular MHRA style, so the name's followed by a comma.

Petrovskaia, Natalia I.,

Step 3. Now we add the title, in single inverted commas. Any single quotation marks already in the title must be converted to doubles.

Petrovskaia, Natalia I., ‘Chapter List’

Step 4. We have to say where this comes from, so:

Petrovskaia, Natalia I., ‘Chapter List’, in

Step 5. Next we identify where the article is to be found, using italics, not quotation marks, for the volume title.

Petrovskaia, Natalia I., ‘Chapter List’, in Delw y Byd: A Medieval Welsh Encyclopedia

Step 6. After the title come any editors or translators. It's 'ed. by', not 'ed by', because although 'ed.' abbreviates 'edited', we regard the 'd' as the second letter of 'edited', not the last: so the abbreviation doesn't contain the last letter, and thus must have a full stop '.'

Petrovskaia, Natalia I., ‘Chapter List’, in Delw y Byd: A Medieval Welsh Encyclopedia, ed. by Natalia I. Petrovskaia

Step 7. This book belongs to a series, so we'll name that. If the series is numbered, we give the number, too. No italics, no quotation marks in the series name.

Petrovskaia, Natalia I., ‘Chapter List’, in Delw y Byd: A Medieval Welsh Encyclopedia, ed. by Natalia I. Petrovskaia, MHRA Library of Medieval Welsh Literature

Step 8. Since this is a book, not a journal issue, we have to identify its source, in round brackets. First, place of publication. This can be ambiguous. MHRA now has its registered address in Cambridge, so let's give that.

Petrovskaia, Natalia I., ‘Chapter List’, in Delw y Byd: A Medieval Welsh Encyclopedia, ed. by Natalia I. Petrovskaia, MHRA Library of Medieval Welsh Literature (Cambridge

Step 9. Now a colon, a space, and the publisher's name. Abbreviating to 'MHRA' is fine here.

Petrovskaia, Natalia I., ‘Chapter List’, in Delw y Byd: A Medieval Welsh Encyclopedia, ed. by Natalia I. Petrovskaia, MHRA Library of Medieval Welsh Literature (Cambridge: MHRA

Step 10. Then the year of first publication, and we're done with the bracketed part.

Petrovskaia, Natalia I., ‘Chapter List’, in Delw y Byd: A Medieval Welsh Encyclopedia, ed. by Natalia I. Petrovskaia, MHRA Library of Medieval Welsh Literature (Cambridge: MHRA, 2020)

Step 11. Now the pagination. This is a book, so we use 'p.' or 'pp.' as appropriate. Number ranges are elided in the last two digits: thus '2234-2265' should be '2234-65', and '102-109' should be '102-09'.

Petrovskaia, Natalia I., ‘Chapter List’, in Delw y Byd: A Medieval Welsh Encyclopedia, ed. by Natalia I. Petrovskaia, MHRA Library of Medieval Welsh Literature (Cambridge: MHRA, 2020), pp. 43–45

And that's the finished bibliography entry. Note that there's no final full stop.

So how about citations in footnotes or endnotes?

In standard MHRA style, the first time the work is cited in a note, it should be cited in full. This looks very like a Bibliography entry, but:

  • The author's name doesn't always come first: only for monographs. For collections and editions, the title comes first.
  • Even if the author's name does come first, it's back to being the right way round, so it's Forename Surname, not Surname, Forename;
  • Unlike Bibliography entries, notes are punctuated as sentences, and usually end in full stops.

Suppose we want to cite a passage on pages 24 to 27:

34 See Natalia I. Petrovskaia, ‘Chapter List’, in Delw y Byd: A Medieval Welsh Encyclopedia, ed. by Natalia I. Petrovskaia, MHRA Library of Medieval Welsh Literature (Cambridge: MHRA, 2020), pp. 43–45, pp. 24-27.

But in any subsequent notes, a heavily abbreviated form is used:

37 Compare Petrovskaia, p. 17.