MHRA Style Citation Demonstration

According to the MHRA Style Guide, this item should be cited in a bibliography as follows:

Schmid, Marion, and Wilson, Emma, introduction to , in Chantal Akerman: Afterlives, ed. by Marion Schmid and Emma Wilson, Moving Image, 9 (Cambridge: Legenda, 2019), pp. 1–6

This is how standard MHRA style would look. Some of its book series (notably Legenda) allow an alternative citation system called 'author-date', but please talk to your editor before using it. (To see the demonstration for author-date, follow this link.)

Let's take this bibliography entry one step at a time:

Step 1. We start with the name(s) of the author(s) of the article, inverting the first name into the form 'Forename, Surname'.

Schmid, Marion, and Wilson, Emma

Step 2. This is regular MHRA style, so the name's followed by a comma.

Schmid, Marion, and Wilson, Emma,

Step 3. Now we add the title, in single inverted commas. Any single quotation marks already in the title must be converted to doubles.

Schmid, Marion, and Wilson, Emma, introduction to

Step 4. We have to say where this comes from, so:

Schmid, Marion, and Wilson, Emma, introduction to , in

Step 5. Next we identify where the article is to be found, using italics, not quotation marks, for the volume title.

Schmid, Marion, and Wilson, Emma, introduction to , in Chantal Akerman: Afterlives

Step 6. After the title come any editors or translators. It's 'ed. by', not 'ed by', because although 'ed.' abbreviates 'edited', we regard the 'd' as the second letter of 'edited', not the last: so the abbreviation doesn't contain the last letter, and thus must have a full stop '.'

Schmid, Marion, and Wilson, Emma, introduction to , in Chantal Akerman: Afterlives, ed. by Marion Schmid and Emma Wilson

Step 7. This book belongs to a series, so we'll name that. If the series is numbered, we give the number, too. No italics, no quotation marks in the series name.

Schmid, Marion, and Wilson, Emma, introduction to , in Chantal Akerman: Afterlives, ed. by Marion Schmid and Emma Wilson, Moving Image, 9

Step 8. Since this is a book, not a journal issue, we have to identify its source, in round brackets. First, place of publication. This can be ambiguous. Legenda may be edited in Oxford, but the registered address of MHRA, which owns Legenda, is in Cambridge.

Schmid, Marion, and Wilson, Emma, introduction to , in Chantal Akerman: Afterlives, ed. by Marion Schmid and Emma Wilson, Moving Image, 9 (Cambridge

Step 9. Now a colon, a space, and the publisher's name. Here that's Legenda because this is the imprint name under which the book is published, even though Legenda is not strictly speaking a company. To decide these things, one must look at the exact wording of the preliminary pages. Our preference is for Legenda books to be cited as 'Legenda', and we word our preliminaries with that aim.

Schmid, Marion, and Wilson, Emma, introduction to , in Chantal Akerman: Afterlives, ed. by Marion Schmid and Emma Wilson, Moving Image, 9 (Cambridge: Legenda

Step 10. Then the year of first publication, and we're done with the bracketed part.

Schmid, Marion, and Wilson, Emma, introduction to , in Chantal Akerman: Afterlives, ed. by Marion Schmid and Emma Wilson, Moving Image, 9 (Cambridge: Legenda, 2019)

Step 11. Now the pagination. This is a book, so we use 'p.' or 'pp.' as appropriate. Number ranges are elided in the last two digits: thus '2234-2265' should be '2234-65', and '102-109' should be '102-09'.

Schmid, Marion, and Wilson, Emma, introduction to , in Chantal Akerman: Afterlives, ed. by Marion Schmid and Emma Wilson, Moving Image, 9 (Cambridge: Legenda, 2019), pp. 1–6

And that's the finished bibliography entry. Note that there's no final full stop.

So how about citations in footnotes or endnotes?

In standard MHRA style, the first time the work is cited in a note, it should be cited in full. This looks very like a Bibliography entry, but:

  • The author's name doesn't always come first: only for monographs. For collections and editions, the title comes first.
  • Even if the author's name does come first, it's back to being the right way round, so it's Forename Surname, not Surname, Forename;
  • Unlike Bibliography entries, notes are punctuated as sentences, and usually end in full stops.

Suppose we want to cite a passage on pages 24 to 27:

34 See Marion Schmid, Emma Wilson, introduction to , in Chantal Akerman: Afterlives, ed. by Marion Schmid and Emma Wilson, Moving Image, 9 (Cambridge: Legenda, 2019), pp. 1–6, pp. 24-27.

But in any subsequent notes, a heavily abbreviated form is used:

37 Compare Schmid and Wilson, p. 17.